There are over 100 coffee species, while the two most popular that are Arabica and Robusta. The Arabica coffee bean has a milder flavour and less caffeine than the other coffee beans out there. Popular types of Arabica coffee are Typica, Caturra, Bourbon, and Blue Mountain. 70 % of coffee consumption is Arabica today. This may change soon due to climate change, which can reduce availability of sensitive Coffea Arabica.
The Robusta beans contain less oil than the Arabic beans which tend to give them a more acidic and bitter taste, which is why this variety is used in coffee drinks like espresso. The Robusta bean is a less expensive bean than the Arabic bean and is what you will find being used in drinks on supermarket shelves. This is due the higher caffeine content, at least fifty percent more than the Arabica bean.
Robusta coffee plants typically produce higher yields than Arabica plants. Robusta coffee plants typically produce higher yields than Arabica plants. This factor, combined with their hardiness and lower cultivation costs, makes them an attractive option for many coffee farmers.Unlike Arabica, which relies on cross-pollination, Robusta coffee plants have self-pollinating flowers. This trait contributes to their hardiness and adaptability in various environmental conditions.
Here are some key ways in which climate change is impacting Arabica coffee:
Temperature Sensitivity: Arabica coffee is a tropical plant that thrives within a specific temperature range. It typically grows best in temperatures between 18°C to 22°C (64°F to 72°F). Warmer temperatures can have a negative impact on Arabica coffee plants, causing reduced yields and affecting the quality of the beans.
Altered Rainfall Patterns: Climate change can lead to shifts in rainfall patterns, including changes in the timing and distribution of rainfall. Arabica coffee plants require a well-defined wet and dry season for optimal growth and fruit development. Irregular rainfall patterns can lead to water stress and decreased coffee production.
Increased Pest and Disease Pressure: Rising temperatures and changes in humidity can create favorable conditions for pests and diseases that affect coffee plants. In particular, the coffee berry borer, a destructive coffee pest, can thrive in warmer climates, leading to higher infestations and crop losses.